A normal person taking 8 glasses of water per day takes 64 oz (1.9 liters), thus the need to continuously eliminate the excess water. The bladder stores this extra liquid and when half complete, sends signals to the mind to let you know that they ought to pee. This however, is bearable and you may opt to hold the urine for longer.
But how long is long, well it changes with various men and women. Others may hold it for so long while others can not hold it for long. It is however highly recommended that you hit the head after the urge to do so comes.
Whilst holding it for a brief period has no effect besides the difficulty to focus on anything else than your urge to pee, doing this for long and a lot of times is detrimental. It might lead to infections and other negative effects. The bacteria on the genital surface isn’t being flushed out, therefore it can enter through the ureter and migrate into the bladder. If it goes untreated, the bacteria will enter the blood stream causing a systemic disease that’s extremely life threatening.
For pregnant women, these bacteria propagate quicker, there are other infections that might arise from this. They include:
Kidneys stones a state where miniature stone like grow in the kidneys as a result of excessive accumulation of sodium and calcium salts across the tract. Its symptoms are: pain in the gut, pain and burning when urinating and swelling of the bladder.
Voiding dysfunction this happens mostly in children. It’s the inability to retain urine as the sphincter muscles are weakened and are not able to relax.
The bladder may also swell because it’s holding more than its capacity. Too much swelling may call for a operation.
Other possible varied effects are anxiety, cramps, shivers and stomach aches.